It’s still blatantly clear that social class or socio-economic status, and not gender or ethnicity, is the key factor whether a child does well or badly at school across the UK. The higher the class (measured by wealth or job) of parents, the more successful a youngster will be in schooling. Lower working-class children, living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, compared to middle-class youngsters of the same ability, generally get poorer exam results according to the ‘Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission’ (October, 2014) report.
Strikingly less than half of young people from unskilled manual families stay on in post-16 full-time education compared to nine in 10 from managerial or professional households across the city. 18% of 16 to 24-year olds Newcastle are NEETS, (not in education, employment or training).
And in a report produced by the independent Education Policy Institute last month the most disadvantaged pupils in England have fallen further behind their peers, and are on average over two years behind non-disadvantaged pupils by the age of 16. The worst hit areas are Cumbria, Derby, the Isle of Wight, Knowsley and Northumberland.
So how can we explain what’s going on, and what can we do about it.
Some policy-makers like Lord Adonis put in it down to the quality of schooling. Teacher labelling, negative stereotyping of working-class pupils to often led to the self-fulfilling prophecy where youngsters believed they were ‘failures’. Some formed pupil anti-school sub-cultures as noted by former Labour Minister Steve Byers in 1998. Until the 1990s millions left at 16. Some did apprenticeships. Others joined the local further education college while a minority ended up in badly paid, low status work with the badge of failure hanging round their necks.
There is substantial evidence to support Tony Blair’s view that a ’good school, in a poor low-income neighbourhood, can make a difference. According to top educationalists, Mortimer and Rutter, good schools can make a difference to the ‘life chances’ of all pupils. For example, teachers who are well prepared for lessons; Teachers who have high expectations; who set high examples of behaviour and place emphasis on praise rather than blame; Teachers who treat pupils with respect and show an interest in their development. But above all, there is an expectation, set by competent, high striving head- teachers, who are committed to a strong achieving ethos, which promotes self confidence and self-esteem amongst students.
In 2003 the Labour Government established London Learning Challenge based on this perspective. In the last decade or so schools across disadvantaged city boroughs such as Hackney have seen the class gap gradually merge.
Despite these accomplishments, schools, however, good or outstanding, can’t compensate for the inequalities in the real social world. Good schooling can help to mitigate inequality but it can’t eradicate it.
One of the key factors for working-class under-achievement, is poverty and material circumstances. In Newcastle Central, over 37 per cent. of youngsters experience child poverty, an increase from two years ago, which has clearly had an impact on their educational success or failure. According to the report, ‘Children’s Life Chances’, produced by the North East Child Poverty Commission in November 2015, there is an attainment gap between pupils who receive free school meals and those that don’t. 15% of boys receiving free school meals didn’t get 5 GCSEs.
Likewise, according to the Newcastle Education Commission in 2005, problems at home are to blame for poor exam results than schools such as low incomes and poor parenting. The reality is too many poor youngsters living in our inner-cities and outer-council estates are living in overcrowded conditions, where there is little space to do homework, and many lack computers – what the experts call ‘digital exclusion’.
Sadly, in some workless households, there is a lack of parental interest, and a deeply ingrained ‘anti-learning culture’; though amongst more aspirational white and BME working class communities, this appears to be slowly breaking down across the city and other urban centres of population across the region.
Of-course, the fact remains that professional/managerial parents possess the ‘cultural and social capital’ to get their kids into the top Universities like Durham, Newcastle and Oxford. Many middle class youngsters can afford to follow unpaid internships in attractive careers such as journalism or Public Relations. Only last year an important report by Alan Milburn, the Government’s Social Mobility Czar, noted that many employers are biased in favour of the elite Russell Group Universities where 80% of middle-class youngsters attend.
To reverse this trend on national level, some educationalists have argued that Central Government needs to abide by the Child Poverty Act, to minimise inequalities, brought in by the last Labour Government in 2010, and eradicate child poverty by 2020 as recommended by the Milburn Report last year.
To date Labour’s radical educational policies have placed a spotlight on these issues .Educational Achievement Zones committed to compensatory schooling, including breakfast clubs in poor neighbourhoods, free school lunches for all primary school pupils, are to be restored, and Sure Start programmes aimed at deprived pre-school children under five will be safeguarded and increased.
The restoration of EMAs and student grants for youngsters from low-income households will play a key role in boosting educational participation.
Most Schools and Colleges in the nation are doing their best, with able and dedicated teachers, with an emphasis on inclusive learning, but they can’t compensate for the iniquities of a socially divided nation.
If we’re serious about raising the attainment levels of disadvantaged youngsters, elected Labour Mayors, devolved combined authorities and a future Labour government must adopt public policies to bring about a more equal and fairer society. Contrary to popular belief social class hasn’t vanished. It’s alive and well. As Christine Skelton in her book, ‘Schooling the Boys,’ says, it’s social class, not gender, that affects overall educational performance in the UK.